What is Apologetics?

Apologetics may be simply defined as the defense of the Christian faith. The word “apologetics” derives from the Greek word apologia, which was originally used as a speech of defense or an answer given in reply. In ancient Athens it referred to a defense made in the courtroom as part of the normal judicial procedure. After the accusation, the defendant was allowed to refute the charges with a defense or reply (apologia). The word appears 17 times in noun or verb form in the New Testament, and both the noun (apologia) and verb form (apologeomai) can be translated “defense” or “vindication” in every case.

Monday, November 24, 2014

Addressing the Deception of Religious Relativism

ALL CAN BE WRONG
BUT NOT ALL CAN BE RIGHT
A half of a year has gone by since I addressed the subject of religious relativism. Back in April of this year, I addressed the question, "Are All Deities the Same? What's the Difference?" In that posting, I addressed the three major monotheistic religions and how they differed from the religions of the East (i.e., Hinduism and Buddhism). Then I took those three monotheistic religions and showed how they differed from one another.

The other night, at our Ratio Christi meeting, a question came up in our Q & A, which has resurrected my writing juices and created a path to address and do more writing on the subject. One of our students stated that her Western Civ professor was making statements like "all religions are essentially the same and say the same thing." 

I am sure this is a popular view in many people's minds. But I want to inform you, the reader, that this view is simply not true, and promotes a great ignorance about nature of the world religions. Sure we hear it not just from the professorial lectern, but also from the media and even government officials pontificating their views.

So this posting is a clarion call to get cracking and get on the trail to write on this subject. Who knows what it will look like when it is done. So here we go.

Let me start off by saying that if there are any similarities to the major world religions, they are very superficial, which is still problematic.  Let's look further.

What Are Those Similarities?

If we were to look at the major world religions, we would find that the only similarities that each of the religions have with one another are only superficial or on the surface. What are those superficial similarities. There are three of them: they promote their followers toward right feeling, right thinking, and right action. Let me see if I can break this down further.

First, each religion seeks to teach its followers to have a right understanding of one's feelings. Despite the commonality, it is interesting to note that each religion has different practices and teachings to assist their followers toward "proper" feelings. Nevertheless, this is the first thing all religions have in common.  

Secondly, each religion also encourages its adherents to think rightly about the world, their fellow man, the problem of evil, "God," and morality. But not all religions agree on how to think about these issues, or what approaches to take on thinking upon these issues. Nevertheless, this is the second thing all religions have in common.  

Lastly each religion encourages those embracing that religion toward "right action." That action might be based on an absolute standard or it may be based upon a personal subjective standard. That action might be toward the "good." But what does that religion teach about how to approach what is "good?" One religion might encourage a person toward right action because it teaches that one's fellow man as created in the image of God. Another religion may not. Nevertheless, this is the third thing all religions have in common. 

Even though there may be similarities, even among the major world religions, there abide differences on how to accomplish the goals of right thinking, right feelings and right actions. But it gets worse.  There are fundamental differences as well. 

Major Fundamental Differences at the Core

What makes one religion different from the next can be evaluated by the responses to the fundamental worldview questions. There a four questions that every religion (an person) must answer. Each answer builds on the prior question. Those questions deal with origin, meaning, morality and destiny.  

The goal here is to just hit the tip of the tip of the iceberg and create an environment to address more of these differences in greater detail in later posts.

Origin. The question of origin is "where do we come from?" Have we pre-existed? Were we created and brought into existence? Not all of the major world religions answer these questions the same way.   Some religions promote the idea that our existence was caused because of a past life experience. Other religions do not believe this but hold to the fact that man did not pre-exist, but came into existence at conception, and was "knit together in [one's] mothers womb."[1]

Meaning. This question addresses our purpose in life and "why are we here?"The answer to this  second question will depend on one's response to this first question. How so? 

Some religions are monotheistic and would say that "God" created the person with meaning and purpose. Some would says that their existence is accidental or the product of random chance. Meaning in the former case would mean that meaning for the individual comes from outside themselves and is found in a relationship with one's Creator. For the latter scenario, meaning is found and expressed in one's self. Meaning is self created and driven by the situations and circumstances of life.

Thinking on these first two questions, we come to the third question. 

Morality. This question addresses the question of framing a moral standard. In other words, "where do right and wrong come from?" Again, when we look at this question, we see that the answer will be, in most cases, built on the answers from the previous two questions. 

Questions within the morality question come to the surface. Other questions like, where does morality begin? Did it evolve? If it did evolve, where did it evolve from? Is morality absolute or relative? Is morality framed by the "dress of the religion?"[2] 

What we have seen thus far is that the answers to the first three questions build on the previous question. This next question will be based upon the answers from the previous three questions.

Destiny. This question is the ultimate question out of the four. "Where am I going once this life is over?" Let's face it, no one wants to die. But death is a reality, and each religion has different dogmatic teachings on what some call, "post mortem survival." 

Are we going through a process of reincarnation to ultimately be united or explode into "unity" with an impersonal "god"? Or are there rewards for the good and punishments for those who do evil? What do those rewards and punishments look like? Each religions answers these questions, differently.

Conclusion

This post has been written from a neutral perspective, asking the simple questions that need to be answered if one is going to hold to the view that all religions say the same thing. I will be addressing the categories of worldviews, writings, views of salvation, post mortem survival dogmas in future posts.

Trying to work this ministry, while working a job that tries to steal my zeal and energy, will often need a jumpstart. I am thankful for our question and answer sessions over the last three weeks and thank the Lord for what I will be sharing in future posts on this blog and others.

Thanks for indulging this post.
________

Notes

[1] Psalm 139:13

[2]  In other words does the religious tenets determine the moral code for those those embrace that particular religion? Some religions have fundamental tenets which determine the essence of a culture. Here in America, our laws are reflecting a Judeo Christian framework, but that does not mean that America is ruled by the Bible. Some cultures are the dress of the religion, because the religion is the essence of the culture. 

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